In the ninth year of hijrah, at the head of an army of 30,000 Muslims which is gathering to meet the impending aggression from the Byzantine Empire, Prophet Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam delivered the following speech at Tabuk on the borders of Syria:
He sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam praised and thanked Allah and said:
Verily the most veracious discourse is the book of Allah (the Qur'an). The most trustworthy handhold is the word of piety (taqwa'). The best of religions is the religion of Ibrahim. The best of the precedents is the precedent of Muhammad. The noblest speech is the invocation of Allah. The finest of narratives is this Qur'an. The best of affairs is that which has been firmly resolved upon. The worst religions are those which are created without sanction. The best of ways is the one trodden by the prophets. The noblest death is the death of a martyr. The most miserable blindness is waywardness after guidance. The best of auctions is that which is beneficent. The best guidance is that which is put into practice. The worst blindness is the blindness of the heart.
The upper hand is better than the lower (i.e. it is better to give than to receive). The little that suffices is better than the abundant and alluring. The worst apology is that which is tendered when death stares one in the face. The worst remorse is that which is felt on the Day of Resurrection.
Some men do not come to the Friday prayer, but with hesitance and delay. And some of them do not remember Allah but with reluctance. The tongue that is addicted to false expression is a bubbling spring of sins.
The most valuable possession is contentment of the heart. The best provision is that of piety. The highest wisdom is the fear of Allah, the Mighty and Great. The best thing to be cherished in the hearts is faith and conviction; doubt is part of infidelity.
Impatient wailing and fulsome praise of the dead is an act of ignorance. Betrayal leads one to the fire of Hell. Drinking amounts to burning. Obscene poetry is the work of the Devil. Wine (alcohol) is the mother of evils. The worst thing eaten is one which belongs to the orphan. Blessed is he who receives admonition from others.
Each one of you must resort to a place of four cubits (the grave). Your affairs will be decided ultimately in the next life. The worst dream is the false dream. Whatever is in store in near. To abuse a believer is transgression. Raising arms against him is infidelity. To backbite him is a disobedience to Allah. Inviolability and sacredness of his property is like that of his blood. He who swears by Allah (falsely), in fact falsifies him. He who pardons is himself granted pardon. He who forgives others, is forgiven by Allah for his sins.
He who represses anger, Allah rewards him. He who faces misfortunes with perseverance, Allah compenses him. He who acts only for fame and reputation, Allah disgraces him. He who shows patience and forbearance, Allah gives him a double reward. He who disobeys Allah, Allah chastises him.
I seek the forgiveness of Allah, I seek the forgiveness of Allah, I seek the forgiveness of Allah.