All of the Prophet's ghazwat, bu'uth and saraya occurred after the hijrah, within a span of ten years. There were either twenty-seven ghazwat, or twenty-five, or twenty-nine. The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam had to fight in nine battles, Badr, 'Uhud, Al-Khandaq, Quraydhah, Al-Mustaliqh, Khaybar, Al-Fath (the conquering of Makkah), 'Hunayn and Ta'if. It was said that the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam also fought against Bani An-Nadhir (a Jewish tribe) and at Al-Ghabah and Wadi al-Qura', which was a suburb of Khaybar.
As for the saraya of the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam and the armies he sent, they numbered close to sixty. There were seven major battles: Badr, 'Uhud, Al-Khandaq, Khaybar, Al-Fath, Hunayn and Tabuk. Several parts of the Qur'an mentioned these major ghazwat. For instance, Surah Al-Anfal (chapter 8) was revealed about ghazwat Badr, while the last part of Surah Ali-'Imran (chapter 3) was about ghazwat 'Uhud, from Allah's statement:
"And (remember) when you [Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam] left your household in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle."
Until just before the end of the Surah. The beginning of Surah Al-Ahzab (chapter 33) was revealed about the battles of Al-Khandaq, Quraydhah and Khaybar. Surah Al-Hashr (59) was revealed about Bani An-Nadhir, Al-Fath (48) about Al-Hudaybiyyah and the battle of Khaybar. The conquering of Makkah was mentioned indirectly in Surah Al-Fath and directly in Surah An-Nasr (110). He sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam was wounded during the battle of 'Uhud. The angels fought alongside the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam during the battles of Badr and Hunayn. They also descended during the battle of Al-Khandaq, where they shook the mushrikin [surrounding Madinah] and defeated them. During that battle, the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam threw a handful of sand at the faces of the mushrikin (polytheists) and they fled [without a fight].
The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam won decisively in two battles, Badr and Hunayn. He used al-manjaniq (mongonel, or catapult) during on battle, At-Ta'if, and took cover behind a trench during Ghazwat Al-Khandaq, also known as Ghazwat Al-Ahzab. Salman al-Farsi radiallahu 'anhu suggested that the trench be dug in that battle.
From Za'ad al-Ma'ad fi Hadyi Khayri-l 'Ibad
- 'Ghazwat', pl. for 'ghazwah', means battles. The battles that the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam led himself were called, 'ghazwat', whereas the armies and expeditions he sent while remaining behind are called, 'bu'uth', pl. for, 'ba'th', and 'saraya', pl. for, 'sariyyah'. ^back
- All of which are mentioned in detail later on in Za'ad al-Ma'ad. ^back
- Al-Bukhari (3767) narrated that Sahl ibn as-Sa'idi was asked about how the wound of the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam was treated, and he replied, "'Ali used to bring water in his shield and Fatimah (the Prophet's daughter and 'Ali's wife) used to wash the blood off his face. Then straw mat was burnt and the wound was filled with it." ^back
- Al-Bukhari (3694) narrated that 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas radiallahu 'anhu said that the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said on the day of Badr, "Here is Jibril, holding the head of his horse and wearing war armours." Allah sent the angels to strengthen their hearts of the believers and to aid them. ^back
- Shaykh 'Irfan said, "Allah said in Surah Al-Ahzab (33:9), 'O you who believe! Remember Allah's Favour to you, when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not [angels during the battle of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates, Ghazwat Al-Khandaq (in 5H)]. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of what you do.' " ^back
- Al-Bukhari (2716) and Muslim (3277) narrated that Allah's Apostle sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam asked for Allah's wrath upon the Ahzab, saying: "O, Allah, Revealer of the Holy Book, and the One swift at reckoning! O, Allah, Defeat the confederates. O, Allah, Defeat them and shake them." ^back