A Summary of Arguments and Quotes from Eminent Scientists
"If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely breakdown." Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species
"The essence of Darwinism lies in a single phrase; natural selection is the creative force of evolutionary change. No one denies that natural selection will play a negative role in eliminating the unfit. Darwinian Theories require that it create the fit as well." Stephan Jay Gould, The Return of Hopeful Monsters, 1977
Random Mutations ... A Source of Variation?
"Mutations are small, random and harmful. They rarely occur and the best possibility is that they will be ineffectual. These four characteristics of mutations imply that mutations cannot lead to evolutionary development. A random change in a highly specialized organism is either ineffectual or harmful. A random change in a watch cannot improve a watch. It will most probably harm it or at best be ineffectual. An earthquake does not improve a city, it brings destruction." B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?, 1988
"In practice mutants die, are sterile, or tend to revert back to the wild type." Michael Pitman, Adam and Evolution, 1984
- The direct effect of mutations is harmful.
- Mutations add no new information to an organism's DNA, but cause abnormalities.
- In order for a mutation to be transferred to the subsequent generation, it has to have taken place in the reproductive cells of the organism.
The Fly and the Trilobite
"The point emerges that if we examine the fossil record in detail, whether at the level of orders or of species, we find over and over again, not gradual evolution, but the sudden explosion of one group at the expense of another." Derek V. Ager, The Nature of the Fossil Record, 1976
"The Trilobites that appeared in the Cambrian period all of a sudden have an extremely complex eye structure. Consisting of millions of honeycomb shaped tiny particles and a double lens system, this eye 'has an optimal design which would require a well trained and imaginative optical engineer to develop today' in the words of David Raup, a professor of geology. This eye emerged 530 million years ago in a perfect state. No doubt, the sudden appearance of such a wondrous design cannot be explained by evolution and it proves the actuality of creation. Moreover, the honeycomb eye structure of the trilobite has survived to our own day without a single change. Some insects such as bees and dragon flies have the same eye structure as the trilobite." R .L. Gregory, Eye and Brain: The Physiology of Seeing, 1995
"The better we understand the functionality of insect wings, the more subtle and beautiful their designs appear. Structures are designed to deform as little as possible; mechanisms are designed to move component parts in predictable ways. Insect wings combine both in one, using components with a wide range of elastic properties, elegantly assembled to allow appropriate deformations in response to appropriate forces and to make the best possible use of the air. They have few, if any, technological parallels - yet." Robin J. Wootton, The Mechanical Design of Insect Wings, 1990
"We are in the dark concerning the Origin of Insects." Pierre P. Grasse, Evolution of Living Organisms, 1977
The Myth of Missing Links
"The popularly told example of Horse evolution, suggesting a gradual sequence of changes from four-toed, fox-sized creatures living nearly 50 million years ago to the today's much larger one toed Horse, has long been known to be wrong. Instead of gradual change, fossils of each intermediate species appear fully distinct, persist unchanged, and then become extinct. Transitional forms are unknown." Boyce Rensberger, Houston Chronicle, 1980
The Complexity of the Cell
"To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is the twenty kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or New York. What we would then see would be an object of unparralled complexity and adaptive design. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings, like portholes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity...beyond our own creative capacities, a reality which is the very antithesis of chance, which excels in every sense anything produced by the intelligence of man ... " Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis
A Question of Probability
There are 3 basic conditions for the formation of a useful protein:
- All the amino acids in the protein chain are of the right type and in the right sequence.
- All the amino acids in the chain are left-handed.
- All of these amino acids are united between them by forming a chemical bond called a 'peptide bond'.
Consider an average protein molecule comprising of 500 amino acids;
- The probability of the amino acids being in the right sequence: There are 20 types of amino acid used in the composition of a protein, therefore: The Probability of each amino acid being chosen correctly from these 20 = 1/20. The Probability of all the those 500 amino acids being chosen correctly = 1/20500. Which is 1 chance in 10650.
- The probability of the amino acids being left handed: The probability of the only one amino acid being left handed = 1/2. The probability of all 500 amino acids being left handed at the same time = 1/20500. = 1/10150. Which is 1 chance in 10150.
- The probability of the amino acids being combined with a peptide bond: It is calculated that the probability of the amino acids being combined by a peptide bond is 50%. Therefore: The probability of two amino acids being combined by a peptide bond = 1/2. The probability of 500 amino acids all combining with peptide bonds = 1/2499 = 1/10150 Which is 1 chance in 10150.
- The Total Probability: =1/10650 x 1/10150 x 1/10150. =1/10950.
A probability of 1 chance in 10950 to form a single useful protein. Robert Shapiro, professor of chemistry at New York University and a DNA expert, calculated the probability of the coincidental formation of the 2000 types of protein found in a single bacteria (there are 200,000 different types of protein in a human cell) to be 1 in 1040000.97. Could it be that a cell was formed under the conditions of a primordial earth ravaged by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and thunderstorms?
"The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it ...it is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of Evolution. There was no primeval soup neither on this planet nor on any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must have been the product of purposeful intelligence." Chandra Wickramasinghe, University of Cardiff, Wales
"Indeed, such a Theory (that life was assembled by an intelligence) is so obvious that one wonders why it is not widely accepted as being self-evident. The reasons are psychological rather than scientific." Sir Fred Hoyle, Evolution from Space, 1984
"At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes ... will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man in a more civilized state, as we may hope, even in the Caucasian, and some ape as low as the baboon, instead of as now between the Negro or Australian and the gorilla." Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 1874
A Basis for Materialism
Karl Marx made it clear that Darwin's Theory provided a solid ground for materialism and thus also for communism. He also showed his sympathy to Darwin by dedicating Das Kapital, which is considered as his greatest work, to him. In the German edition of the book, he wrote: "From a devoted admirer to Charles Darwin."
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