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- Muhammad Nasir ud-Din al-Albani
What Benefits the Dead
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:
"The likeness of wealth, family and the actions of the son of Adam is of a man who has three companions. One of the man's companions says: I am with you as long as you live; when you die, you have taken your share of yourself and you have taken your share of me - this is his wealth. The second companion says: I am with you until you reach that tree; you have had your share of yourself and your share of me - this is his family. The third companion says: I am with you in life and in death." [Sahih: Related by Al-Bazzar and Al-Albani authenticated it]
The above authentic hadith is in fact like the following hadith in meaning and in subject matter. Anas said that the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:
"The dead person is followed (to his grave) by three: His family, his wealth and his actions. Two of them return and only one remains. His family and wealth return, but his actions remain." [Related by Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
These two ahadith show that actions alone endure and enter the grave with their doers. Both these ahadith also affirm the fact that anything other than actions - such as wealth, servants or relatives - are of no benefit at all. Rather, they all return (to this world). His wealth becomes the property of his inheritor, whilst his relatives and family do not grant him anything from Allah.
These ahadith intend to direct Muslims to be concerned with actions which will stay with them forever; and not to strive for wealth and position for the sake of relatives, family and servants. Apparently, the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam wanted to show us the value of good actions when he related these ahadith to us, (which can be found) in the books of Zuhd (renouncement of the world). He pointed out to us that because actions will last rather than wealth, you have to make your actions righteous. Part of making ones actions righteous is through good wealth that is earned lawfully and spent in a good manner. Then one gains the rewards of 'amalus-salih (a righteous action).
- Muhammad ibn Jamil Zaynu
Allah created the creation so that He alone should be worshipped, and He sent to them Messengers to teach them and He sent the Books along with the Messengers to establish judgement according to the truth and justice between them. Al-Hukm (the Judgement) is to be found in the Speech of Allah and the speech of His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and it includes judgement in matters of al-'ibadat (worship), al-mu'amalat (social transactions), al-'aqa'id (beliefs), tashri' (Prescribed Laws), siyasah (politics: to protect and take care of the affairs of the Ummah), and other human affairs.
Judgement with Regards to Beliefs
The first matter which the Messengers began their call with was the correction of 'aqidah (beliefs) and calling people to Tawhid (to single out Allah alone for worship). So Yusuf - 'alayhis-salam - when he was in prison, called his two companions to Tawhid when they asked him about the interpretation of dreams. So before answering their question, he said: "O two companions of the prison! Are many different deities better, or Allah, the One, the Irresistible? You do not worship besides Him, except names which you and your forefathers have forged, for which Allah has sent down no authority. The Judgement is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none except Him. That is the straight Din. But most of mankind do not know." [Al-Qur'an 12:39-40]
Allah - the One free from all imperfections - said:
"So have taqwa (fear and obedience) of Allah and reconcile the differences between yourselves."
"Indeed the Believers are but brothers. Therefore reconcile the differences between your brothers, and fear Allah so that you may receive mercy."
"So this is a knot which Allah has bound the Believers together with, such that whenever a person is found possessing iman (faith) in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and the Last Day - whether in the eastern or western part of the world - then such a person becomes the brother of the Believers. This brotherhood obligates that the Believers should love for that person that which they love for themselves, and hate for that person that which they hate for themselves. Therefore, the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said - whilst ordering the brotherhood of iman (faith): 'Do not envy one another. Do not inflate prices upon one another. Do not hate one another. Do not forsake one another. Do not under-cut one another. But be worshippers of Allah and brothers. The Muslim is the brother of another Muslim; he neither oppresses him, nor humiliates him, nor lies to him, nor holds him in contempt. And piety is right here [and he pointed to his chest three times]. It is enough evil for a person to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. The whole of a Muslim for another Muslim is sacred; his blood, his property and his honour.' 1 And he sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: 'The Believer to the Believer is like a solid structure, one part supporting the other.' And he interlaced his fingers to demonstrate this.2
"Thus Allah and His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam ordered that the rights of the Believers be fulfilled by each other, and that those matters which will bring about harmony, love and togetherness be carried out. All of this is to be done in order to further the rights that they have over one another. So from such tights is that when fighting occurs between them - thereby causing their hearts to separate and to have hatred and to cut-off from each other - then the Believers should bring about reconciliation between their brothers and do that which will remove the enmity. Then Allah ordered taqwa in general and made the bestowal of His Mercy the consequence of their having taqwa and their fulfilling the rights of the Believers. So He said: 'And have taqwa of Allah in order that you may receive mercy.' Thus, if Allah's Mercy is attained, then the good of this world and the Hereafter will also be attained."3
'A'ishah radhiallahu 'anha used to say, that when people abandoned acting upon this ayah (verse): "When two parties of the Believers fight each other, then make reconciliation between them." [Al-Qur'an 49:9]. So when the Muslims began fighting each other, it was obligatory to reconcile them, as Allah - the Most High - ordered. However, when they did not do this, then fitnah (trials and tribulations) spread, as did ignorance, and this is what caused the differences to continue.4
Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Shall I not inform you of something that is greater in degree than (optional) fasting, charity and prayer?" They said: Indeed inform us. So he said: "It is reconciling the people. For indeed causing corruption between them is the shaver!" 5
And he sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam explained this shaving in another saying: "The disease of the people before you has overcome you, namely envy and hatred and it is the shaver. I do not say that it shaves off the heir. Rather, it shaves off the religion!" 6
(s) Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No. 3 - Rabi' ul-Awwal 1417H / August 1996CE
- Ahmad Farid
Ikhlas (purity and sincerity of intentions)
It is the stripping (i.e. the purifying) of one's intentions in order to draw closer to Allah - the Mighty and Majestic - in all matters. It is also said that ikhlas is intending to single out Allah alone with acts of obedience. It has also been said that ikhlas is to forget about the creation by constantly looking towards the Creator.
And ikhlas (sincerity) is a condition for Allah to accept those righteous actions that are done in accordance with the Sunnah (guidance) of Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. So Allah - the Most High - commanded us with His saying:
"And they have not been commanded except to worship Allah alone, having ikhlas (purity of intention) in their Religion and not setting-up partners with Allah in the worship of Him." [Al-Qur'an 38:5]
Abu Umamah radhiallahu 'anhu relates:
Once a man came to Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam and said: What do you think about a person who joins us in the fighting only to seek fame and wealth? So Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam replied: "He receives nothing!" The man repeated the question three times, each time Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "He recieves nothing!" Then he said: "Indeed Allah does not accept an action except if it is done with ikhlas (i.e. purely for Allah's sake), seeking nothing but His Face." 1
- Abu Muhammad al-Juwayni
Imam Al-Juwayni1 (d. 438H) - rahimahullah - said:
"Know, that for a brief period, I was confused about three matters:
- The issue of As-Sifat (the Attributes of Allah);
- The issue of Al-Fawqiyyah (Allah being above His creation); and
- The issue of Al-Harf (the Word) and As-Sawt (the Voice) about the Glorious Qur'an.
I used to be confused about the differing sayings - which are found in the contemporary books with regards to these matters whether ta'wil (manipulative distortion) should be made of the Attributes and tahrif of them. Whether to take them as they are and halt at their meanings, or whether to affirm them without ta'wil, ta'til, tashbih or tamthil. But I found in the texts of the Book of Allah - the Most High - and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, a great clarity about the reality of these Attributes, and likewise with regards to affirming Al-'Uluww (the highness of Allah), Al-Fawqiyyah, Al-Harf and As-Sawt.
- Muhammad al-Amin ash-Shanqiti
"Indeed Allah will help those who help Him. Indeed Allah is Exalted in Might, All-Powerful."
Imam Ash-Shanqiti (d. 1393H) - rahimahullah - said:
Allah - the Mighty and Majestic - explains in this noble ayah that He has sworn to help and give victory to those who help Him. It is known that the help and victory of Allah comes by following what He has prescribed, obeying His commend, avoiding His prohibitions, by helping His Messengers and their followers, aiding His Religion and fighting against His enemies and overpowering them - until the word of Allah is made uppermost, whilst the word of His enemies is debased and mode low. Then Allah - the Most High, the Most Magnificent - explains the characteristics of those whom He has promised would receive His help and victory, distinguishing them from others. So He said - explaining those to whom He swore He would aid and give victory to - because He is the one to aid and give victory:
"Those who, if We establish them in the earth, establish the prayer, give the Zakat, enjoin the good and forbid the evil."
And that which this noble ayah indicates is that whosoever aids Allah, then Allah will aid Him. This is clearly explained in other than this place, such as His - the Most High's - sayings:
"O you who believe. If you help Allah, Allah will help you; and establish your feet firmly. But those who disbelieve, for them is destruction and Allah will make their deeds vain." [Al-Qur'an 47:7]
"Indeed, Our Word has gone forth of old for our slaves, the Messengers, that they will certainly be victorious; and that Our forces will certainly be triumphant." [Al-Qur'an 37:171-173]
"Allah has Decreed: It is My Messenger and I who will prevail." [Al-Qur'an 58:21]
"Allah has promised to those amongst you who believe and do righteous actions that He will grant you the khilafah in the land." [Al-Qur'an 24:55]