Wed, Oct

Islam has forbidden the calls of jahiliyyah (the pre-Islamic days of ignorance) and there are many textual evidences which forbid all of the characteristics and manners of jahiliyyah and their actions, except those (good and decent) practices which Islam agreed to. And there is no doubt that the call to nationalism is from these calls of jahiliyyah, since nationalism is a call to other than Islam and an aiding of other than the truth. And how many ills, evils and serious wars has such calls of jahiliyyah caused to their people, causing great harm to their souls, their wealth and their possessions. The consequences of such calls (for the Muslims) was a splitting-up of their unity and a planting of enmity and hatred of each other in their hearts and a fragmentation and splitting between tribes and nations.

Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728H) - rahimahullah - said:{qluetip title=[1]}Majmu' al-Fatawa (3/456){/qluetip}

"Everything which is outside the call of Islam and the Qur'an, with regards to lineage, land, nationality, schools of thoughts and ways, it is from the calls of jahiliyyah." Indeed, even when the Muhajirun (those Companions who migrated from Makkah to Madinah) and the Ansar (those Companions who aided and supported those who migrated) argued, such that one of the Muhajirun said: 'O Muhajirun! (implying; rally to my aid).' And one of the Ansar said: 'O Ansar!' The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, upon hearing this, said: 'Is it with the calls of jahiliyyah that you call, and I am still amongst you!' And he became very angry at that.{qluetip title=[2]}Related by Al-Bukhari (8/137){/qluetip}"

And from the textual evidences pertaining to this issue is Allah - the Most High's - saying:

"And stay in your homes and do not display yourselves, like the display of the times of jahiliyyah (pre-lslamic ignorance). But establish the Prayer, give the Zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger."
Al-Qur'an 33:33
"When those who disbelieved placed in their hearts pride and arrogance - the pride and arrogance of jahiliyyah - then Allah sent down His tranquility upon His Messenger and upon the Believers ..."
Al-Qur'an 48:26

The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:

"Whosoever leaves off obedience and separates from the Jama'ah and dies, he dies a death of jahiliyyah. Whoever fights under the banner of the blind, becoming angry for 'asabiyyah (partisanship and party-spirit), or calling to 'asabiyyah, or assisting 'asabiyyah, then dies, he dies a death of jahiliyyah."
Related by Muslim in his Sahih (6/21), from Abu Hurayrah radhiallahu 'anhu

Also in Sahih Muslim (8/120) the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:

"Indeed Allah has revealed to me that you should have humility, and that no one should act proudly and oppressively over anyone else, nor should anyone boast over anyone else."

And there is no doubt that the call to nationalism is a call to 'asabiyyah (partisanship and party-spirit) and it is a call to becoming angry for the sake of 'asabiyyah and fighting for 'asabiyyah. And there is no doubt also, that the call to nationalism is a call to transgression, pride and arrogance, since nationalism is not a divinely-revealed way of life which prevents its people from oppression and proud-boasting. Rather it is an ideology from the time of jahiliyyah which leads it people to boasting about it and having 'asabiyyah for it - even if they are the oppressors and the others are the oppressed! So - noble reader - consider this and the truth will be clear to you.

And from the textual evidences connected with this is what At-Tirmidhi relates from Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam that he said:

"Let people stop boasting about their forefathers who have died, who are merely fire for the Hellfire; or they will certainly be more insignificant with Allah than the beetle which roles dung with its nose. Allah has removed from you the party-spirit of the days of jahiliyyah and the boasting about one's forefathers. Indeed a person is either a pious Believer or a wretched sinner. All of mankind are the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay."
Hasan: Related by Abu Dawud (no. 5116) and At-Tirmidhi (no. 4233) from Abu Hurayrah radhiallahu 'anhu. It was authenticated by Ibn Taymiyyah in Kitabu'l-Iqtida (p. 35)

The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam also said:

"Indeed there is no excellence for an arab over a non-arab, nor a non-arab over an arab, nor a white person over a black one, nor a black person over a white one, except through taqwa (piety and obedience to Allah)."
Sahih: Related by Ahmad (5/411) and it was authenticated by Ibn Taymiyyah in Kitabu'l-Iqtida (p. 69)

And this accords with Allah - the Most High's - saying:

"O mankind! We have created you from male and female and have made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Indeed the most noble of you with Allah is the one who has the most taqwa."
Al-Qur'an 49:13

So Allah - the One free from all defects - made clear in this noble ayah (verse) that people have been made into nations and tribes so that they may come to know each other, not that they should boast and have pride over one another. And Allah - the Most High - considered the most noblest of them to be the one with the most piety and taqwa. Likewise, the previously mentioned narration shows the same meaning, and guides to the fact that it is from the ways of jahiliyyah to vainly boast and to have false pride for one's fore fathers and ancestry. This is what the calls of jahiliyyah lead to, whereas Islam is in opposition to this. Rather Islam calls to modesty, humility, taqwa and to having love for the sake of Allah, and that the true and sincere Muslims are merely one of the categories of the children of Adam 'alayhis-salam, and that the Muslims are a single body and a single structure; each part supporting the other and each part feeling the pain that the other parts are suffering - as occurs in an authentic hadith (narration) from the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, that he said: "The Believer to the Believer is like a solid building, one part supports the other." And he interlaced his fingers to demonstrate this.{qluetip title=[3]}Related by Al-Bukhari (no. 481) and Muslim (no. 2585) from Abu Hurayrah radhiallahu 'anhu{/qluetip}

The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam also said:

"The example of the Believer in their mutual love and mercy is like the example of a body, if one part of the body feels pain, then all the body suffers in sleeplessness and fever."
Related by Al-Bukhari (no. 6011) and Muslim (no. 2586) from An-Nu'man ibn Bashir radhiallahu 'anhu

O people! I call to you in the name of Allah. Does your nationalism call you to these noble manners of mercy and kindness to the Muslims - the arabs and the non-arabs - and of having mutual sympathy and concern for them, and feeling pain at their pain? No by Allah! Rather it calls you to having allegiance with those who have evil character and it calls you to cultivating enmity and hatred for those who deny this false creed of nationalism. So beware, O Muslim who desires safety and salvation, and consider the reality of the affair with a fair consideration, without being prejudiced with party-spirit and desires. Only then you will see the reality as it truly is. So may Allah guide me and you to the means of safety and salvation.

And it is related by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Sahih (8/137), that a young man from the Muhajirun and a young man from the Ansar quarreled. So the Muhajir said: "O Muhajirun! (meaning: rally to my help)" And the Ansari said: "O Ansar!" So the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam heard this and said: "Is it with the call of jahiliyyah that you are calling out, and I am present amongst you!"

Even though the term Muhajr and Ansar are two ascriptions which are beloved to Allah - the One free from all defects - and He has praised these two groups with a very great praise, in His - the Most High's - saying:

"And the first to embrace Islam from the Muhajirun and the Ansar, and those who followed them in goodness, beliefs and actions. Allah is well-pleased with them, and they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens of Paradise, beneath which rivers flow, to live therein forever. That is the supreme achievement."
Al-Qur'an 9:100

Yet in the above incident, this ascription to the Muhajirun and seeking the help from them, and the Ansar and seeking the help from them, when the likes of this was considered to be from the calls of jahiliyyah, what about those who claim allegiance to nationalism and seek help through that and become angry for that? Will this not be more fitting to be considered one of the calls from the days of jahiliyyah? This is a matter in which there is no doubt, and it is one of the dearest of all matters.

And this is what has been established in the authentic hadith (narration), from Al-Harith al-Ash'ari radhiallahu 'anhu that the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "I order you with five things which Allah ordered me with: The Jama'ah, hearing, obeying, hijrah (migration) and jihad in the way of Allah - the Mighty and Majestic. So whosoever separates from the Jama'ah by a hand span, throws the yoke of Islam from his neck, unless he repents. And whosoever calls with the call of jahiliyyah (the days of ignorance), then he is from the hoarded-heap of Hellfire." It was said: Even if he fasts and prays? He said: "Even if he fasts and prays. So call with the call of Allah which Allah gave: The Muslims, the Believers, Worshippers of Allah." {qluetip title=[4]}Sahih: Related by At-Tirmidhi (no. 2863) and At-Tiyalasi (no. 1161) and others. It was authenticated by Shaykh Al-Albani in his checking to Ibn Abi 'Asim's As-Sunnah (no. 1036){/qluetip}

This hadith is absolutely clear with regards to rendering futile the calls to nationalism. Its callers deserve that they should be from the heap of Hellfire, even if they fast and they pray and claim that they are Muslims. So what a severe threat and severe warning is given here; warning every Muslim from the calls of jahiliyyah and warning them from entering into this - even is such calls are adorned with false talks and enchanting speeches. Rather is a deception and a blind-following which leads its people to the worst and most despicable of ends. And we ask Allah for safety and freedom from that.

From Nuqdu'l-Qawmiyyatu'l-'Arabiyyah (pp. 39-44), slightly edited. This translation is from Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Issue No.2 - Safar 1417H / July 1996CE.

"'Aqidah comes first" is a phrase which has, over the last quarter of a century, become a slogan in some Muslims quarters. Yet there can be no denying that 'aqidah or belief (from 'aqada: to tie, bind, fasten securely; from which comes the idea of tying certain beliefs to one's heart in utter conviction of them), is the single most important aspect of the faith. One is not a Muslim until a small set of beliefs, or 'aqidah, is tied to the heart. It is as simple as that. In Islam, acts of piety follow on from sound intentions, which stem from sound beliefs.

The kalimah (word) La ilahah ilallah (that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah), if it said with truthfulness and sincerity from the heart, and acted upon in that which it necessitates - outwardly and inwardly - then its effect will indeed be praiseworthy upon both the individual and the society.

Allah created the creation so that He alone should be worshipped, and He sent to them Messengers to teach them and He sent the Books along with the Messengers to establish judgement according to the truth and justice between them. Al-Hukm (the Judgement) is to be found in the Speech of Allah and the speech of His Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and it includes judgement in matters of al-'ibadat (worship), al-mu'amalat (social transactions), al-'aqa'id (beliefs), tashri' (Prescribed Laws), siyasah (politics: to protect and take care of the affairs of the Ummah), and other human affairs.

Imam Al-Juwayni{qluetip title=[1]}He is Abu Muhammad al-Juwayni, father of the famous Imam Al-Haramayn Abu Ma'ali al-Juwayni. Abu Muhammad was a Shafi'i faqih and initially in 'aqidah he followed the Ash'ari madhhab. However, he retracted from this and returned to the madhhab of the Salaf - as is attested to by his book Risalah Ithbatu'l-Istawa wa'l-Fawqiyyah.{/qluetip} (d. 438H) - rahimahullah - said:

"Know, that for a brief period, I was confused about three matters:

  1. The issue of As-Sifat (the Attributes of Allah);
  2. The issue of Al-Fawqiyyah (Allah being above His creation); and
  3. The issue of Al-Harf (the Word) and As-Sawt (the Voice) about the Glorious Qur'an.

So Ahlus-Sunnah wa'l-Jama'ah affirm for Allah - the Most Perfect - what He has affirmed for Himself in His Noble Book, or what has been affirmed for Him by His Messenger Muhammad sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam in the authentic Sunnah. Affirming without tamthil (resemblance) and freeing Allah - the Most Perfect - from any resemblance to His creation, whilst also rejecting and being free from ta'til. So whosoever holds fast to the truth which Allah sent, humbling and accepting it, whilst being sincere to Allah in the quest for it, then it is the way of Allah - the Most Perfect - that He will grant such a person harmony with the truth and show them His clear evidences ...

Muhammad written in Arabic

The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam chose the station of al-'ubudiyyah (slavery and servitude) over and above the station of kingship. Once - on the day of the conquest of Makkah - a man stood-up (out of reverence) for the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, who, being shocked, said to him:

"Do not trouble yourself! Indeed I am not a king. Rather I am merely the son of a Qurayshi woman who eats dry meat."
Sahih: Related by Ibn Sa'ad in At-Tabaqat (1/23) in mursal form. However, it has been related in connected form by Ibn Majah (no. 3312) and Al-Hakim (3/47) from Abu Mas'ud radhiallahu 'anhu. Shaykh Al-Albani authenticated it in As-Sahihah (no. 1876)

It has also been authentically reported from the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam that he said:

"Do not over praise me as the Christians over-praised 'Isa son of Maryam. Indeed, I am only a slave. So call me the Slave of Allah and His Messenger."
Related by Al-Bukhari (6/345), Ad-Darimi (2/320) and others, from 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab radhiallahu 'anhu

Imam Ahmad - rahimahullahu ta'ala - reports from Muhammad ibn Fudayl, from 'Amarah, from Abu Zur'ah who said: I do not know this except from Abu Hurayrah - radhiallahu 'anhu - who said: Jibril was sitting with the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam looking towards the sky, when he saw an angel. So Jibril - 'alayhis-salam - said to him: Indeed, this angel has never descended before today. So when the angel had descended, he said: O Muhammad! I have been sent by your Lord (to inquire) whether He should make you a Prophet-King or a Slave-Messenger. [Related by Ahmad (2/321), Al-Bazzar (no. 4262) and Al-Haythami in Al-Majma' (9/18-19) where he said: "It has been narrated by Ahmad, Al-Bazzar and Abu Ya'la, and its initial narrators are all the narrators of As-Sahih."]

When Surah an-Nasr was revealed the Companions rejoiced with the glad tidings of help and victory from Allah. The chapter depicts a most pleasing scene of people embracing the religion of Islam in large crowds, fulfilling the prophecy of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), that Islam would spread across the Arabian Peninsula. Abu Bakr alone, wept uncontrollably. He declared, "May my mother and father be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah!". For he alone understood that this chapter was not only foretelling the near victory that the Muslims would soon enjoy, but it was in fact foretelling the passing away of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam). Ibn Abbas later explained this chapter in the gatherings of the senior companions who witnessed Badr by saying, "This was a sign for the Prophet to know his time of death." {qluetip title=[1]}Sahih al-Bukhari{/qluetip}

The Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) stands alone as the greatest of the Messengers and the most beloved to Allah of His creation. No being, whether human, jinn or indeed angel has drawn closer to Allah's presence in this life than the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam). During the miraculous night journey, even the leader of the angels, Jibril, could not accompany the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) as he ventured forward to speak to Allah directly, with no barrier between him and His Lord except the veil of light. It is sufficient for us to understand the status of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) when we look at the great terms of endearment and respect by which Allah himself addresses the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) in the Qur'an. With this in mind, it becomes clear that Allah did not send the most beloved of His creation to this world for any other reason than to establish His religion and make His Word the highest. When this mission was complete the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was to return to His Lord.

The Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said:

"If one of you is afflicted with a calamity, then let him remember his calamity by me (his death); for indeed, it is the greatest of calamities."
Ibn Majah

To this day the Muslim ummah suffers from the trauma of the death of the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam). But even through his death, the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) sought to console the ummah and alleviate the anguish of their own calamities by comparing it to the greatest of calamities, namely his death (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam). As-Sindi states, "Remembering a greater disaster wipes out the effect of a smaller one, and if one was able to tolerate and shoulder the greater disaster then it becomes easier for him to withstand the smaller one."

The Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) stated:

"The stars safeguard the skies, and when the stars disappear, then the skies will get what they were promised (i.e. the day of Resurrection), and I safeguard my companions, so when I go then my companions will get what they were promised (i.e. trials and tribulations), and my companions safeguard the Muslim nation, so when they go then my nation will get what they were promised."
Sahih Muslim

This right is the greatest right of any of the creation. None of the creation have a right greater than the rights of Allah's Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. Allah - the Most High - said:

"Indeed We have sent you as a witness rind a bringer of good-tidings and a warner, in order that mankind may believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you may assist and honour the Messenger."
[Al-Qur'an 48:89]
Muhammad, peace be upon him
Muhammad, peace be upon him

Therefore it is obligatory to love the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam over and above any of mankind - even above one's love for himself, his parents and his children. The Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "None of you will truly believes until he loves me more then his parents, his children and the whole of mankind." {qluetip title=[1]}Related by Al-Bukhari (1/57) and Muslim (no. 44), from Anas radhiallahu 'anhu{/qluetip}

And from the rights that are due to the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam are: that he should be honoured, loved and respected - but without any ghulu (exaggeration) or any falling short in the matter. Honouring the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam during his lifetime implied honouring his Sunnah (guidance and example) and his noble character and conduct. As for honouring him after his death, then this implies honouring his Sunnah and the Shari'ah (the Prescribed Laws) that he was sent with. Whosoever reflects upon the lives of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) will come to know how these great and virtuous people established the obligation of honouring the Messenger sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.

Last update:

  • Added Harith ad-Dari (d. 1436H), may Allah have mercy upon him

Before Hijrah (pre-622CE)

Year Name Notes
  Abu Ammar Yasir Martyred by the Quraysh
Sumayyah Umm 'Ammar Martyred by the Quraysh
Khadijah * Mother of the Faithful

Hijrah to 99H (622CE-718CE)

Year Name Notes
2H Mahja' (a slave of 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab) Died at Badr
Harithah ibn Suraqah Died at Badr
Ubaydah ibn Al-Harith Died at Badr
'Umayr ibn Al-Humam Died at Badr
Mu'awwadh ibn al-'Afra Died at Badr
Sawad Died at Badr
3H Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib (i) Chief of the Mayrtrs, (ii) Died at Uhud, (iii) paternal uncle of the Messenger of Allah
  Shammas ibn 'Uthman Died at Uhud
  Mus'ab ibn 'Umayr Died at Uhud
  Anas ibn An-Nadr Died at Uhud
5H Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh (i) "The Throne of Allah shook at the death of Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh." [Al-Bukhari], (ii) Died of wounds sustained at Khandaq
11H The Messenger of Allah, may Allah's salah and salam be upon him Died of natural causes aged 63
Fatimah bint Muhammad Daughter of the Messenger of Allah
'Abbad ibn Bishr  
12H Ukasha ibn Al-Mihsan (i) Fought at Badr, (ii) Promised Paradise by the Messenger of Allah [Al-Bukhari 8/76/549], (iii) Died during the Wars of Apostasy
13H Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahal  
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq * The First Righteous Caliph & Commander of the Believers
17H Mu'adh ibn Jabal  
20H Zaynah bint Jahsh Mother of the Faithful
Bilal ibn Rab'ah *  
Usayd ibn Al-Hudayr  
22H Ubayy ibn Ka'ab  
23H 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab * (i) Marytred by a pagan slave named Firas, (ii) the second righteous Caliph & Commander of the Believers
32H Abu'd-Darda  
Abu Dharr  
'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud  
Al-'Abbas ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib Paternal uncle of the Messenger of Allah
'Abdur-Rahman ibn 'Awf *  
Zayd ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd-Rabbihi  
Jundub ibn Junadah  
33H Al-Miqdad ibn Al-Aswad  
34H 'Ubadah ibn Samit  
35H 'Uthman ibn 'Affan * (i) Martyred during sectarian fighting, (ii) the third righteous Caliph & Commander of the Believers, (iii) son-in-law to the Messenger of Allah
Safiyah bint Huyay ibn Akhtab Mother of the Faithful
Salman al-Farsi Or 36H
36H Hudhayfah ibn Al-Yaman  
Talhah ibn 'Ubaydullah *  
Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam *  
37H Ammar ibn Yasir  
38H Suhayb ar-Rumi  
40H Tamim ibn Aws ad-Dari  
'Ali ibn Abi Talib (i) The fourth and last righteous Caliph & Commander of the Believers, (ii) son-in-law and paternal first cousin to the Messenger of Allah
42H Umm Habibah Mother of the Faithful
43H 'Abdullah ibn Salam  
'Amr ibn Al-'As  
44H Abu Musa al-Ashari  
45H Zayd ibn Thabit Or 48H
50H Al-Hasan ibn 'Ali ibn Abu Talib Grandson of the Messenger of Allah through Fatimah
Sa'id ibn Zayd *  
52H 'Imran ibn Husayn  
Ka'b ibn Malik  
54H Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas * Or 55H
Thawban ibn Bajdad  
Usamah ibn Zayd  
56H Juwayriyah bint Al-Harith Mother of the Faithful
58H 'A'ishah Mother of the Faithful
Uqbah ibn Amir al-Juhani  
59H Abu Hurayrah  
61H Al-Husayn ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (i) Martyed at Kerbala during secterian violence, (ii) grandson of the Messenger of Allah through Fatimah
62H Alqamah ibn Qays an-Nakhai  
Umm Salamah Mother of the Faithful
64H Abu Sa'id al-Khudri  
65H 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn Al-As  
67H 'Adi ibn Abi Hatim  
68H 'Abdullah ibn Abbas Paternal first cousin of the Messenger of Allah
71H Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib  
73H 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar  
Asma' bint Abi Bakr  
'Abdullah ibn Az-Zubayr  
74H Jabir ibn Samurah  
Jabir ibn 'Abdillah  
80H Shurayh al-Qadi  
81H Muhammad ibn Al-Hanifiyyah  
90H Abu'l-Aaliyah  
93H 'Anas ibn Malik  
Sa'id ibn Al-Musayyib  
94H Urwah ibn Az-Zubayr  
Zayn ul-'Abidin, 'Ali ibn Al-Husayn  
95H Sa'id ibn Jubayr  
Ibrahim an-Nakha'i  

100H to 199H (718CE-815CE)

Year Name Notes
100H Abu Tufayl  
101H 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-'Aziz  
103H Ash-Sha'bi  
104H Mujahid ibn Jabr  
Abu Qilabah  
106H Salim ibn 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar  
Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr  
Tawus ibn Kaysan  
107H Ibn Shawzab  
110H Al-Hasan al-Basri  
Muhammad ibn Sirin  
114H Ata ibn Abi Ribah  
Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Husayn  
117H An-Nafi'  
Ibn Abi Mulaykah  
124H Az-Zuhri, Ibn Shihab  
126H Amr ibn Dinar  
127H 'Abdullah ibn Dinar  
130H Malik ibn Dinar  
131H Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani  
Muhammad ibn Al-Munkadir  
132H Abu Zinad  
136H Zayd ibn Aslam  
Rabi'ah ibn Abi 'Abdir-Rahman  
139H Yunus ibn Ubayd  
148H Jafar as-Sadiq  
150H Abu Hanifah an-Nu'man Founder of the Hanafi school of thought
Ibn Jurayj  
151H 'Abdullah ibn 'Awn  
157H Al-Awza'i  
160H Shu'bah ibn Al-Hajjaj  
Ibrahim ibn Adham  
164H Ibn Al-Majishun  
167H Sufyan ath-Thawri  
Hammad ibn Salamah  
175H Al-Layth ibn as-Sa'ad  
177H Sharik ibn 'Abdullah  
179H Malik ibn Anas Founder of the Maliki school of thought
Hammad ibn Zayd  
181H 'Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak  
182H Abu Yusuf  
186H Mu'afi ibn Imran  
187H Fudayl ibn 'Iyad  
189H Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan ash-Shaybani  
191H Al-Ma'mar ibn Rashid  
193H Abu Bakr ibn Ayyash  
197H Sufyan bin 'Uyaynah  
Waki' ibn Al-Jarrah  
198H 'Abdur-Rahman ibn Mahdi  
Yahya ibn Sa'id al-Qattan  
'Abdullah ibn Wahb  

200H to 299H (815CE-912CE)

Year Name Notes
204H Muhammad ibn Idriss ash-Shafi'i Founder of the Shafi'i school of thought
206H Yazid ibn Harun  
211H As-San'ani, 'Abdur-Razzaq  
220H Al-Humaydi  
224H Abu Ubayd Qasim ibn Sallam  
228H Nu'aym ibn Hammad  
233H Yahya ibn Ma'in, Abu Zakariyyah  
234H Ali ibn Al-Madini  
Abu Khaythamah  
235H Ibn Abi Shaybah  
238H Ishaq ibn Rahawayah  
240H Qutaybah ibn Sa'id  
Ibrahim ibn Khalid, Abu Thawr  
241H Ahmad ibn Hanbal Founder of the Hanbali school of thought
255H Ad-Darimi, Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdur-Rahman  
256H Al-Bukhari Compiler of the Sahih
  Ahmad ibn Sinan  
261H Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj al-Qushayri an-Naysaburi Compiler of the Sahih
264H Abu Zur'ah ar-Razi  
265H Muhammad ibn Sahnun  
266H Salih ibn Ahmad  
272H Abu Bakr ibn Athram  
274H At-Tirmidhi Compiler of the Sahih
275H Abu Dawud as-Sijistani  
276H Ibn Qutaybah  
277H Abu Hatim ar-Razi  
280H Ad-Darimi  
281H Ibn Abi Dunya  
283H Sahl ibn 'Abdullah  
287H Ibn Abi Asim  
290H 'Abdullah ibn Ahmad  
294H Al-Marwazi  
297H Al-Junayd al-Baghdadi  

300 to 399H (912CE-1009CE)

Year Name Notes
303H An-Nasa'i  
307H Abu Yala al-Mawsili  
310H Ibn Jarir at-Tabari  
311H Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Khallal  
Ibn Khuzaymah  
321H Abu Ja'far at-Tahawi Author of the famous text Al-'Aqidah, commonly referred to as The Creed of At-Tahawi.
324H Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari  
327H Ibn Abi Haatim  
329H Al-Barbahari  
344H Al-Khiraqi, Abu'l-Qasim  
349H Abu Ahmad al-Asal  
354H Ibn Hibban  
360H Abu Bakr al-Ajurri  
370H Abu Bakr al-Jassas  
371H Abu Bakr al-Isma'ili  
385H Ad-Daraqutni  
Ibn Shahin, Abu Hafs 'Umar ibn Ahmad  
386H Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani, Abu Muhammad  
387H Ibn Battah  
388H Al-Khattabi  
395H Ibn Mandah  

400 to 499H (1009CE-1106CE)

Year Name Notes
403H Ibn Hamid  
405H Al-Hakim  
406H Abu Hamid al-Isfara'ini  
418H Al-Lalika'i  
421H Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi  
429H At-Talamanki  
430H Abu Nu'aym al-Asbahani  
438H Abu Muhammad al-Juwayni  
449H Abu Isma'il as-Sabuni  
456H Ibn Hazm  
457H Al-Bayhaqi  
458H Abu Ya'la  
463H Ibn 'Abdul-Barr  
Khatib al-Baghdadi  
470H Ash-Sharif Abu Ja'far al-Hashimi  
476H Abu Ishaq ash-Shirazi  
477H Al-Baji, Abu Walid al-Maliki  
481H Abu Isma'il al-Harawi  
489H As-Sam'ani, Abu Mudhaffar  

500 to 599H (1106-1203CE)

Year Name Notes
505H Al-Ghazali  
510H Al-Kalwadhani, Abu'l-Khattab  
516H Al-Baghawi  
532H Ibn Al-Arabi al-Maliki  
535H Al-Asbahani  
544H Qadhi 'Iyad  
561H 'Abdul-Qadir al-Jilani  
571H Ibn Asakir  
597H Ibn Al-Jawzi  

600 to 699H (1203-1300CE)

Year Name Notes
600H 'Abdul-Ghani al-Maqdisi  
606H Ibn ul-Athir, Al-Mubarak, al-Jazari  
620H Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi  
630H Ibn ul-Athir, Abu'l-Hasan, al-Jazari  
643H Ibn As-Salah ash-Shahrazuri ash-Shafi'i  
Diya al-Maqdisi  
652H Majd ud-Din ibn Taymiyyah  
656H Hafidh Al-Munthiri ash-Shafi'i  
660H Izzuddin ibn 'Abdis-Salam, ash-Shafi'i  
665H Abu Shammah  
671H Al-Qurtubi, Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Maliki  
676H An-Nawawi Author of the famous texts Arba'in an-Nawawi (Fourty Hadith) and Riyadh as-Salihin
681H Ibn Khalikan  
684H Al-Qarafi  

700 to 799H (1300-1397CE)

Year Name Notes
701H Ibn Daqiq al-'Eid, Ash-Shafi'i  
728H Ibn Taymiyyah  
742H Al-Mizzi, Al-Hafidh  
744H Ibn 'Abdul-Hadi, Muhammad, Al-Hafidh, Al-Maqdisi  
748H Adh-Dhahabi  
751H Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah  
774H Ibn Kathir Author of the famous Tafsir al-Qur'an al-Adhim
790H Ash-Shatibi, Al-Maliki  
792H Ibn Abi Al-Izz  
794H Az-Zarkashi, Al-Hafidh  
795H Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali  

800 to 899H (1397-1494CE)

Year Name Notes
803H Al-Bulqini, Al-Hafidh  
804H Ibn Al-Mulaqqin  
806H Al-Iraqi, Zayn ud-Din, Al-Hafidh  
807H Nuruddin al-Haythami  
808H 'Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad, Ibn Khaldun Author of the famous text Al-Muqaddimah
840H Ibn Wazir al-Yamani  
852H Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani  
855H Badruddin al-'Ayni  
'Ala ud-Din al-Mardawi  

900 to 999H (1494-1591CE)

Year Name Notes
902H As-Sakhawi  
909H Yusuf ibn 'Abdil-Hadi  
911H Jalaluddin as-Suyuti  
968H Al-Hajawi  
974H Ibn Hajar al-Haytami  
975H 'Ali Muttaqi al-Hindi  

1000 to 1099H (1591-1688CE)

Year Name Notes
1014H 'Ali al-Qari  
1031H Al-Manawi  
1051H Al-Buhuti  
1083H Ibn Balban  
1089H Ibnu'l-'Imad  

1100 to 1199H (1688-1785CE)

Year Name Notes
1112H Al-Isfarini  
1132H Abu'l-Hasan as-Sindi  
1162H Isma'il al-'Ijluni  
1163H Muhamad Hayat as-Sindi  
1176H Waliullah ad-Dihlawi  
1189H As-San'ani, Muhammad ibn Isma'il  

1200 to 1299H (1785-1882CE)

Year Name Notes
1205H Muhammad ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab  
1209H Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Gharib  
1233H Sulayman ibn 'Abdullah Aal-Shaykh  
1242H 'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn 'Abdul-Wahhab  
1250H Ash-Shawkani, Muhammad 'Ali  
1285H 'Abdur-Rahman ibn Hasan Aal-Shaykh  
1286H 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdur-Rahman Aba Batin  
1293H 'Abdul-Latif ibn 'Abdur-Rahman Aal-Shaykh  

1300 to 1399H (1882-1978CE)

Year Name Notes
1301H Hamd ibn Atiq  
1304H Al-Laknawi  
1307H Siddiq Hasan Khan al-Qanuji  
1317H Nu'man ibn Mahmud al-Alusi  
1320H Sayyid Nathir Husayn Dihlawi  
1326H As-Sihasawani, Muhammad Bashir  
1332H Jamaluddin al-Qasimi  
1338H Tahir al-Jaza'iri  
1339H 'Abdullah ibn 'Abdul-Latif Aal-Shaykh  
1342H Mahmud Shukri Aal-Alusi  
1349H Sulayman ibn Sahman  
Shams ul-Haq al-Athimabadi  
Sa'ad ibn Hamd ibn Atiq  
1352H 'Abdur-Rahman al-Mubarakfuri  
1359H 'Abdul-Hamid ibn Badis  
1367H Muhammad ibn 'Abdul-Latif Aal-Shaykh  
1373H 'Abdullah al-Anqari  
1376H As-Sa'di, 'Abdur-Rahman ibn Nasir  
1377H Ahmad Muhammad Shakir  
1378H Muhammad Hamid al-Faqih  
1380H Muhammad Bashir al-Ibrahimi  
1386H Muallami al-Yamani  
1389H Muhibbuddin al-Khatib  
Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Aal-Shaykh  
'Abdullah al-Qar'awi  
1392H 'Abdur-Rahman ibn Qasim al-'Asimi al-Hanbali  
1393H Ash-Shinqiti, Muhammad al-Amin  
'Abdul-Haqq al-Hashimi  
1397H Abdul-Majid Daryabadi  

1400 to date (1978- CE)

Year Name Notes
1407H Ehsan Ilahi Zahir Died in Saudi Arabia from injuries sustained after a targeted bomb blast in Lahore, Pakistan
Habib Ur Rahman Yazdani Died from injuries sustained after a targeted bomb blast in Lahore, Pakistan
1408H Taqiuddin al-Hilali  
1413H Muhammad Hammoud at-Tuwayjiri, Abu 'Abdullah  
1414H 'Abdur-Razzaq al-Afifi  
'Ubaydullah Rahmani al-Mubarakfuri  
1417H Badi' ud-Din Shah as-Sindi ar-Rashidi  
Muhammad Aman al-Jami'  
1418H Mahmud Shakir  
Hammad al-Ansari  
1419H 'Umar Muhammad Fullata  
1420H 'Abdul-'Aziz ibn 'Abdullah ibn Baz  
Muhammad Nasir ud-Din al-Albani  
Abu'l-Hasan Ali an-Nadwi  
'Atiyah Muhammad Salim  
Sayyid Sabiq  
Muhammad ibn Salih al-Mansur  
1421H Ali as-Sinan  
Muhammad Salih ibn Al-'Uthaymin  
1423H Muhammad Safwat Nur ud-Din  
1425H 'Abdul-Qadir al-Arna'ut  
1426H Ahmad Deedat  
1431H Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi Grand Shaykh of Al-Azhar University, Cairo from 1416H until his death
1433H 'Umar Sulayman al-Ashqar  
1434H 'Abdur-Rahman as-Sumayt  
1435H Zubayr 'Ali Za'i  
Muhammad Qutb  
1436H Harith ad-Dari Secretary-General of the Association of Muslim Scholars in Iraq
'Abdul Hadi Arwani Martyred in London, United Kingdom


* Promised Paradise during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam.


Undoubtedly the family of the Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) enjoy a high status and level of respect from Ahlus-Sunnah wa'l-Jama'ah, who honour the rights which Allah has prescribed for Ahlul-Bayt (the family of the last Prophet). They love them and regard them as friends, and they the recommendations of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam), which he spoke of on the day of Ghadir Khum:

"I remind you of Allah concerning the members of my household."
[Muslim, Kitab Fada'il as-Sahabah, hadith no. 2408]

They are the happiest of people to take this advice and follow it; they reject the way of the Rawafid who go to extremes concerning members of the Prophet's family, and the way of the Nawasib who insult them and hate them. Ahlus-Sunnah are unaminously agreed that it is obligatory to love Ahlul-Bayt and it is haram to offend them or mistreat them in word or deed. {qluetip title=[1]}Al-'Aqidah fi Ahlul-Bayt bayna al-Ifrat wa't-Tafrit, p. 59{/qluetip} 'Umar (radhiallahu 'anhu) demonstrated and explained to us the belief of Ahlus-Sunnah concerning Ahlul-Bayt in the way in which he dealt and interacted with them.

Why We Should Learn the Sirah

Part 1 of 1 (30m 06s)

About the Lecturer

More Lectures by Navaid Aziz on SunnahOnline.com

"Knowledge is better than wealth. Knowledge is a protection for you, whereas it is you that has to protect wealth. The zakat of knowledge is action, whereas spending decreases wealth."

Purification of the Heart

Part 1 of 2 (40m 58s)

Part 2 of 2 (42m 08s)

About the Lecturer

More Lectures by Navaid Aziz on SunnahOnline.com

Patience (As-Sabr)

Part 1 of 1 (21m 00s)

About the Lecturer

More Lectures by Yahya Adel Ibrahim on SunnahOnline.com

"Death is a harsh and fearful reality faced by everyone who lives. No one has the power to avoid it, nor does anyone around a dying person have the ability to prevent it. It is something that happens every moment and is something encountered by the young and the old, the rich and the poor, the strong and the weak. They are all the same in that they have no plan, nor any means of escaping it, no means of intercession, no way to prevent it, nor to delay it."{qluetip title=[1]}Al-Mawt (p. 9) of Shaykh 'Ali Hasan al-Halabi.{/qluetip}

Allah - the Most High - says:

"Say: Indeed, the death from which you flee will surely meet you, then you will be sent back to Allah, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. And He will then tell you what you used to do." [Al-Qur'an 62:8]
"Every soul shall taste death. And We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good, and to Us will you be returned."
[Al-Qur'an 21:34-35]

Indeed it is death "which causes fear in the souls, and with it one's actions are sealed, and what comes after is even more fearful and fear-inducing. For is there a place one can flee to in order to escape from the constrictions suffered in the grave? What will our reply be when we are questioned in the grave? Indeed, not a single one of us knows where we will end up. Will it be Paradise whose width is like the heavens and the earth, or shall it be the Fire whose fuel is of men and stones?"{qluetip title=[2]}As-Salat wa Atharahu fi Ziyadati'l-Iman (p.10) of Shaykh Husayn al-Awaishah.{/qluetip}

Ibrahim ibn Adham (d. 160H) - rahimahullah - said, when he was asked about the verse: "Call upon Me and I will respond to you." [Al-Qur'an 40:60] They said: We call upon Allah, but He does nor respond to us. So he said:

"You know Allah; yet you do not obey Him. You recite the Qur'an; yet you do not act according to it. You know Shaytan; yet you continue agreeing with him. You claim to love Allah's Messenger 'alayhis-salam; yet you abandon his Sunnah (guidance and way). You claim to love Paradise, yet you do not work for it. You claim to fear the Fire; yet you do not stop sinning. You say, Indeed death is true; yet you have not prepared for it. You busy yourselves with the faults of others; yet you do not look at your own faults. You eat the sustenance that Allah provides for you; yet you are not grateful to Him. And you bury your dead; yet you have not heeded its lesson."
[Al-Hafidh Ibn Rajab related it in Al-Khushu' fi's-Salah (p. 62)]

So this - O noble reader - is the reality which must be firmly established in one's heart; the reality that life in this world is limited and has an appointed end, and that this end will surely come ...

"The righteous will die; And the wicked will die. The warriors who fight jihad will die; And those who sit at home will die. Those who busy themselves with correct beliefs will die; And those who treat people as their slaves will die. The brave who reject injustice will die; And the cowards who seek to cling to this vile life will die. The people of lofty-goals and ambitions will die; And the wretched who live for cheap enjoyment will die."{qluetip title=[3]}Al-Mawt (p. 10).{/qluetip}

"Every soul shall taste death."
[Al-Qur'an 3:185]

"So keep in mind the point of death, and of one's passing on to the next life, and the number of sins that one has committed and the small amount of good that one has done. Think of the good that you would earnestly like to do at that time - then bring that forward and do it today. And think of all those things which you would desire to clear yourself of- then clear yourself from them now."{qluetip title=[4]}Al-Mawt (p. 16){/qluetip}

From the editors of Al-Istiqaamah Magazine, Dhul-Hijjah 1416H / May 1996CE.

This includes suppressing one's anger, and being gentle and humble. Allah Most High has said: "Surely, you are of tremendous nature," [Al-Qur'an 68:4] and, "Those who suppress their anger, and forgive other people – assuredly, Allah loves those who do good." [Al-Qur'an 3:134]

Bukhari and Muslim relate that 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr, radhiallahu 'anhu, said, "The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, was never immoderate or obscene. He used to say, 'Among those who are most beloved to me are those who have the finest character.'"

They also narrate that 'A'ishah, radhiallahu 'anha, said, "Never was the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, given the choice between two things without choosing the easier of them, as long as it entailed no sin. If it did entail sin, he was of all people the most remote from it. Never did he seek revenge for something done against himself; but when the sanctity of Allah was challenged, he would take vengeance for His sake alone."

The meaning of good character is the inclination of the soul towards gentle and praiseworthy acts. This may take place in one’s personal actions for Allah Most High, or in actions which involve other people.

In the former case, the slave of Allah has an open and welcoming heart for His commandments and prohibitions, and does what He has imposed on him happily and easily, and abstains from the things which He has forbidden him with full contentment, and without the least dissatisfaction.

Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said, "A sign of one's excellence in his Islam, is ignoring what does not concern him." [Related by Ahmad, Malik & At-Tirmidhi]

The Status of this Hadith

Ibn Rajab said, "This hadith is a basic and an important source of good behavior in Islam." Muhammad ibn Zayd, a great scholar of the Maliki Madhhab, said, "Four ahadith comprise a perfect code of conduct. One of them is, 'Whoever believes in Allah and His Messenger should say that which is useful or keep silent.' Another is when the Prophet said to the man who sought his advice, 'Avoid getting angry.' A third is, 'The believer loves for his (believing) brother what he loves for himself.' The fourth is the above hadith."

A Sign of Excellence in Islam

A sign of one's excellence in the religion, is his ignoring what does not concern him, including all things said or done. The Muslim should only participate in what concerns him, such as anything that is his property, right, obligation or under his control. To be concerned with something entails preserving and taking care of this thing that one is allowed to be concerned with.

As for the matters that do not concern one, they are in abundance. Usually, when a person tries to interfere in such matters that do not concern him, the tool frequently used for this is the tongue. Muslims are ordered to utter only good words, for Allah said, "Not a word he (man) utters, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it)." [Al-Qur'an 50:18]