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The Rulings Concerning The Two Eids From The Purified Sunnah
Shaykh 'Ali Hasan 'Ali 'Abdul Hameed al-Halabi hafidhahullaah
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CHAPTER - NINE : Bathing before the 'Eid Prayer
Naaf'i reports: "That 'Abdullaah bin 'Umar used to bathe on the day of Fitr before setting out to the musallaa."49
Imaam Sa'eed ibn-ul-Musayyib said: "The Sunnah acts of 'Eid-ul-Fitr are three: walking to the musallaa eating before proceeding to the musallaa and bathing."50
I say: Perhaps he means the sunnah of the Companions ie. their way and guidance. Since no sunnah is authentically reported from the Prophet (SAW) regarding this.
Imaam Ibn Qudaamah said: "It is preferred to purify oneself by bathing for 'Eid. Ibn 'Umar used to bathe on the day of Fitr. This is also reported upon 'Alee (may Allaah be pleased with him) and it is the opinion of 'Alqamah Urwah, 'Ataa, An-Nakhaa'ee, ash-Sha'bee, Qataadah Aboo Zinaad Maalik, Ash-Shaafi'ee and Ibn Mundhir..."51
As for that which is reported from the Prophet (SAW) regarding this, then it is unauthentic.52
CHAPTER - TEN : Does one pray before or after the 'Eid Prayer?
Ibn 'Abbaas reports: "That the Prophet (SAW) prayed two rak'ahs on the day of Fitr and he did not pray before or after this... "53
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy upon him) said: "Neither he (SAW) nor his Companions used to pray before or after the ('Eid) prayer when they reached the musallaa."54
Haafidh Ibn Hajr55 said: "In conclusion, it has not been established that the 'Eid prayer has a Sunnah (prayer) before or after it; in contrast to those who make an analogous conclusion for it from the Friday prayer."56
CHAPTER - ELEVEN : The Islamic ruling of the 'Eid prayer
Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah said:"...and consequently we have deemed as being the strongest opinion that the 'Eid prayer is obligatory upon all individuals. Like the opinion of Aboo Haneefah57 and others. This is also one of the opinions of ash-Shaafi'ee and one of the two opinions of Ahmad. The opinion of those who say 'it is not obligatory' is extremely far from the truth. For indeed the 'Eid prayer is one of the symbols of Islaam. The gathering of people for 'Eid is greater than that on the day of Jum'ah and the saying of takbeer has been permitted in 'Eid. The opinion of those who say that it is not obligatory upon everybody (Fard-ul-Kifayah) does not hold.. "58
The renowned scholar ash-Shawkanee said in as-Sail al-Jaraar (1/315)59 "Know! that the Prophet (SAW) continually practised this prayer on every 'Eid. He (SAW) never, in any one of the 'Eids left it. He (SAW) ordered the people to go to it so much so that he (SAW) also ordered the egression* of the mature women60, young girls and the menstruating women. He (SAW) also ordered the menstruating women to stay away from the prayer, witness the good and witness the supplications of the Muslims. He (SAW) ordered the egression of women for this event to such an extent that he (SAW) ordered the women who did not possess an outer-garment to be clothed with the outer-garments of their Companions.61 All of this shows that the 'Eid prayer is definitely compulsory upon all individuals and not just upon some people. The order to egress to the musallaa necessitates the order to pray the 'Eid prayer, for one who has no excuse; as is implied from the tone of this message. This is because "egression" is a means to the prayer. Therefore the fact that the means is obligatory necessitates that the objective (the prayer) is obligatory. Also the men are more deserving of this ruling than the women."
He then said: "And from the evidences regarding the 'Eid prayer being obligatory is that if the Friday prayer and the 'Eid coincide upon one day, then the 'Eid prayer cancels out the Friday prayer62. Therefore that which is not obligatory cannot cancel out that which is obligatory. Also it has been established that the Prophet (SAW) continually practised the 'Eid prayer in congregation, from the time it was legislated until he died; and added to this continual practising of the 'Eid prayer is his ordering the people to egress to the prayer."63
Our Shaykh Al-Albaanee said in Tamaamul-Minnah (p.344) after quoting the hadeeth of Umm 'Ateeyah: "Thus the 'command' that is mentioned indicates it being obligatory. Since, if proceeding (to the musallaa) is an obligation then by right the prayer is an obligation, and this is clear. Thus the truth is that it is obligatory and not just a Sunnah."
CHAPTER - TWELVE : The time of the 'Eid prayer
'Abdullaah bin Busr, the companion of the Prophet (SAW) proceeded along with the people to the musallaa on the day of 'Eid-ul-Fitr or 'Adhaa and rebuked the delay of the Imaam in coming to the musallaa and said: "Verily by this time we had finished praying and that was at the time of Tasbeeh."64
This hadeeth65 is the most authentic on this topic. Other ahaadeeth are reported but they are weak with respect to the chains of narration.
Ibn al-Qayyim said:66 "He (SAW) used to delay the 'Eid-ul-Fitr prayer and hasten the prayer of 'Eid-ul-'Adhaa. Ibn 'Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) despite his strong following of the Sunuah - would not come out until sunrise."
Siddeeq Hasan Khan said: "The time for 'Eid prayer is after the sun has risen a length of a spear up until zawaal (mid-day). Verily there is an ijmaa (consensus) upon what is inferred upon by the ahaadeeth - even though the like of this is not a proof - as for the final time for the prayer then it is zawaal (mid-day)."67
Shaikh Aboo Bakr al-Jazaa'iree said: "Its time is from the sun rising a spear's length up until zawaal (midday). It is best to pray the 'Eid-ul- 'Adhaa prayer at its earliest possible time, so that people will be able to go and offer their sacrifices and to delay the prayer of 'Eid-ul-Fitr, so that the people will be able to give their sadaqah."68
NOTE If the day of 'Eid is not known until late in the same day the 'Eid prayer is prayed the next morning. Aboo Dawood, an-Nasaa'ee and Ibn Majah transmit with an authentic chain of narration from Abee Umair Ibn Anas from an uncle of his from amongst the Companions, that he testified he saw the Crescent yesterday and so they were ordered to break the fast and on the following morning to proceed out to the musallaa.69
CHAPTER - THIRTEEN : No Adhaan or Iqaamah for the 'Eid Prayer
Jaabir ibn Samurah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "I prayed the 'Eid prayers, with Allaah's Messenger many times, without an Adhaan or an Iqaamah."70
Ibn 'Abbaas and Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with them) said: "They did not give the Adhaan on the day of Fitr, nor on the day of 'Adhaa."71
Ibn al-Qayyim said: "...and when he (SAW) used to arrive at the rnusallaa he (SAW) would begin the prayer without an Adhaan, nor an Iqaamah, nor by saying the words 'collective prayer' The Sunnah is not to do any of these things."72
Imaam as-San'aanee said, when he was explaining the sayings of the scholars on this topic: "It is proof of the illegality of giving the Adhaan and the Iqaamah in the 'Lid prayers. Indeed giving the Adhaan and Iqaamah are an innovation (at 'Eid)."73
*Translators note: Due to the richness of the 'Arabic language and the limitation of the English language the word egression is the word that best portrays the original meaning of the Arabic. Since the word Khurooj in this context means to leave and proceed out to another place..."
49. Reported by Maalik (1/177) ash-Shaafi'ee (73) and Abdur-Razzaaq (5754) and it has an authentic chain of narration.
50. Reported by a1-Firyaabee (127/1.2) and its isnaad is saheeh. Refer to Irwaa alGhaleel (2/104).
51. Al-Mughnee (2/370).
52. As with Ibn Maajah (1315) and in the chain of narration is Jabbarah bin Mughallis. He and his teacher are weak narrators. Also reported by Ibn Maajah (1316) and in its chain of narration is Yusuf bin Khaalid as-Samtee and many have declared him a liar.
53. Reported by al-Bukhaaree (989). at-Tirmidhee (537) an-Nasaa'ee (3/193). Ibn Maajah (1291).
54. Zaad-ul-Ma'aad (2/443).
55. Fath-ul-Bauree (2/476).
56. Refer to Sharh-us-Sunnah (4/316-317) and footnote 4 in this book.
57. Refer to Hashiyah ibn 'Aabideen (2/166) and that which comes after it.
58. Majmoo-al-Fataawaa (23/161).
59. And from him Siddeeq Hasan Khan in Maw'ithat-ul-Hasanah (42-43)
60. Ibn Atheer in an-Nihaayah (3/179) said: "It is said the girl matured thus she is mature. Just like the saying she menstruated thus she is menstruating."
61. All of this is confirmed from the hadeeth of Umm Ateeyah, which is reported by al-Bukhaaree (324.35 1,971,974,980,981, 1652). Muslim (890). at-Tirmidhee (539), an-Nasaa'ee (3/180), Ibn Maajah (1307) and Ahmad (5/84,85).
62. As in the hadeeth of Aboo Hurairah, when day of Eid and the Friday coincided on the same day Allaah's Messenger (SAW) said: "In this day of yours two 'Eids have coincided, so whosoever wishes then the 'Eid prayer suffices for him (cancels out the Friday Prayer), but we are going, to offer the Friday' prayer" Reported by Aboo Daawood (1073). Ibn Maajah (1311) and its chain of narration is hasan. Refer to al-Mughnee (2/357), Majmoo al-Fataawaa (24/212).
63. The evidence has preceeded. Refer to Nail-ul-Awtaar (3/382-383) RawatunNadiyah (1/142) and Tamaam-ul-Minnah (2/37)
64. i.e at the time for offering the voluntary prayers that is "after the time of dislike" (waqt-ul-karaaha) for praying has elapsed. Refer to Fath-ul-Baaree (2/457) and anNihaayah (2/331).
65. Reported by al-Bukhaaree in mu'allaq form (omitting the isnaad or part of it) (2/456) and in full form by Aboo Daawood (1135), Ibn Maajah (1317). al-Haakim (1/295), al-Baihaqee (3/282) and its chain of narration is saheeh.
66. Zaad-ul-Ma'aad (1/442).
67. Maw'ithat-ul-Hasanah (43-44).
68. Minhaaj-ul-Muslim (278).
69. Reported by Aboo Dawood (1157), an-Nasaa'ee (3/180) and lbn Maajah (1653)
70. Reported by Muslim (887), Aboo Daawood (1148). at-Tirmidhee (532).
71. Reported by al-Bukhaaree (960), Muslim (886).
72. Zaad-ul-Ma'aad (1/442).
73. Subul-as-Salaam (2/67)
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