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The Rulings Concerning The Two Eids From The Purified Sunnah
Shaykh 'Ali Hasan 'Ali 'Abdul Hameed al-Halabi hafidhahullaah
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Shaikh 'Ali Hassan 'Ali Abdul Hameed al-Halabi is one of the foremost students of Shaikh Muhammed Naasiruddeen al-Albaani who is the Muhaddith of this era. Shaikh 'Ali Hassan has authored many books in Arabic and has travelled throughout the world giving lectures and holding seminars. The Shaikh currently resides in Amman, Jordan.
The English translation of the Arabic book by Brother Aboo Tahir was published by: Daar ul-'ilm un-Nafie' 165 Green Lane, London SW16 3NA United Kingdom
AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION
All praise is for Allaah, we praise Him, we seek His aid and His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allaah from the evils of ourselves and from our evil actions. Whomsoever Allaah guides then there is none who can misguide him and whomsoever Allaah leaves to stray then there is none who can guide him. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone, having no partners and I bear witness that Muhammad (SAW) is His Slave and His Messenger.
To proceed: Verily Islaam is the great Religion of Allaah, the religion He approved for mankind, so that by it they can rectify the affairs of their lives, through the passing of time and the changing of ages.
"Should He not know what He created? And He is the Most Kind and Courteous (to His slaves), All aware of everything." 1
The Islamic ummah (nation) was the best ummah raised up for mankind. This is because it carried the message (of Islaam) and conveyed it to the other nations. The Islamic ummah remained in this state up until the day it distanced itself from the Book of its Lord - the One free from all imperfections and Most High - and from the Sunnah of its Prophet (SAW).
Therefore it is obligatory upon all Muslims, in all parts of the world to return to the Book of Allaah, Exalted is His Power and Blessed be His Name, and to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (SAW). Such that they unite upon the Book and the Sunnah, becoming heedful of them with understanding, as well as fulfilling their Islamic duties and fulfilling the rules and regulations of their worship.
Verily I have become sure that from amidst the causes which Islaam incorporates, putting it at the forefront of its fundamental principles as well as making it the pinnacle of its teachings is to increase the ways of unifying the Muslims and binding them together.
Included in this, is that the congregational prayer has been made compulsory upon them2 five times a day. They tie their hearts to one Imaam, following his moves and actions, one by one. They remain conscious of their Lord, fulfilling what they have been appointed to do. They have mercy and compassion for each other distancing them selves from transgression and causing evil on the land.
Furthermore they have been enjoined to unite whenever it might be possible for Iblees to put into their hearts his Hamz, Nafkh and Nafth3 or to unite whenever the joy and glamour of this world might enter their hearts, seeking nearness to and depending upon its false aspirations. Thus they have the day of Jummah4; which has been made into a day of 'Eid for them.
They gather on this day and are reminded of the signs and bounties of Allaah, such that they can remain upon purity, binding each others hearts together. They were also given two days in the year, in which they can take care of each others needs, mutual benefits and general conveniences as well as strengthen the bonds of love and friendship. Therefore they were given 'Eid-ul-Fitr, which follows the worship of Ramadaan5, at which time their souls are pure and sincere towards virtuous and righteous actions.
Likewise they have been given 'Eid-ul- 'Adhaa at which time the servants (of Allaah) are in the safe sanctuary of Allaah, and in the pure land from which the Prophetic Lamp emanated and on which the light of happiness arose. The servants at this point in time being sincere worshippers desiring only actions that bring them closer to Allaah.6
Due to all of this I felt the need to write a separate treatise about 'Eid ul-Fitr and 'Eid-ul-'Adhaa7 and the rules and regulations connected to them. This is despite the tribulations and calamities which the Muslims are suffering from. Since this is only due to their distancing themselves from the pure fountain and guiding path; which Allaah, the One free from all defects and the Most High has explained in His Book and His Messenger (SAW) clarified in his Sunnah and life.
However, knowledge of Islamic regulations and issues of fiqh are not stopped by any matter and neither are they affected by anything. Rather it encourages the Muslims towards knowledge, action, spreading goodness and inviting to the Religion of Allaah, the Blessed and Most High.
I have chosen, in what I have written, simplicity and conciseness, so that the treatise can be easy to understand, quick to read and provide that which is needed and meaningful for the aspiring person. I have striven to bring forth the most correct sayings in the issues discussed, keeping far away from the differences of the schools of thought, sup porting the more correct opinion with its evidences.
Therefore, if I am correct then it is by the success of Allaah, the Most High, and if I am wrong, then from Allaah is forgiveness and mercy. Finally, I ask Allaah to grant me sincerity of intention in this deed and to benefit the generality of the Muslims by it. Indeed Allaah is All Hearing, and the Answerer to all calls.
Written by Abul-Haarith 'Alee bin Hasan bin 'Alee [First edition in 'Arabic 1405 A.H Printed in 'Arabic by Maktabat-al-Islameeyah]
CHAPTER - ONE : The Eid
It is a day in which there is a gathering. The word being derived from 'aada-ya 'oodu he returned, he is returning, as if they are returning to it i.e. 'Eid. It is also said that the word is derived from 'aadah custom/habit, because they have become accustomed to it. The plural of it being 'Ayaad. It is also said: "'Ayaadal Muslimoon" the Muslims celebrate 'Eid, meaning they witnessed their 'Eid.
Ibn-ul- 'Arabee said: "'Eid was named 'Eid because it returns every year with renewed happiness."8
The renowned scholar Ibn 'Aabideen said: "'Eid was titled by this name because in it is the customary benefi cence of Allaah, the Most High, i.e. various forms of kindness that return, everyday upon His servants. From these are: "Fitr" (eating) after food had been prohibited, Sadaqatul-Fitr, completion of the Hajj by the Tawaf of visiting, the meat from the sacrifices and many other acts. Also because the custom in 'Eid is joy, happiness, cheer fulness and gladness."9
CHAPTER - TWO : The Mercy of Allaah for the Prophetic Ummah by the two Eids
Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "The Prophet (SAW) came to Madeenah and the people of Madeenah had, in Jaahileeyah two days for play and amusment10. So the Prophet (SAW) said: 'I came to you and you had, in Jaahileeyah two days for play and amusement. Indeed Allaah has replaced them for you by that which is better than them: The dav of Nahr (Slaughteung) and the day of Fitr (Breaking fast).'"11
Shaikh Ahmad 'Abdur-Rahmaan al-Banaa said: "That is because the two days, the day of al-Fitr and of an-Nahr are from the legislation of Allaah, the Most High, His choice for His cre ation and because they succeed the performance of two great pillars of Islaam - which are, the Hajj and Fasting. In them Allaah forgives the pilgrims and those who fast and spreads His Mercy over all of His obedient creation. As for the days Niarooz and Mahrajaan, then they were chosen by the wise men of that era, either because of the mild ness of climate and season or because of other transitory virtues. Thus the difference between them is clear for one who contemplates."12
CHAPTER-THREE : Permission to listen to the Daff* played by young girls
'Aa'ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: "The Messenger of Allaah, entered into my' presence while I had two young girls singing13 the songs of Bu'aath, so he (SAW) reclined upon his mattress and turned his face away. Aboo Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him), then walked in and rebuked me and said: 'The music of Shaitaan in front of the Prophet (SAW)'. Allaah's Messenger approached him and said: Leave them.' 'Aa'ishah continued "And when the Prophet (SAW) dozed off I signaled to the young girls and they left." and in another narration Allaah's Messenger (SAW) said: "O Aboo Bakr every people have an 'Eid and this is our 'Eid." 14
Imaam al-Baghawee said in Sharh-us-Sunnah (4/322): "Bu'aath 15 is a well known day for the Arabs, in it occurred a great battle between the Aws and the Khazraj and this war lasted 120 years up until Islaam came. Thus the poetry that the two girls were singing contained a description of the war and bravery. Hence mentioning it aids the affair of the religion. As for songs that mention abominable deeds and openly invite to for bidden acts and manifesting evil speech then they are prohibited. It is inconceivable that this would take place in front of the Prophet (SAW) and he would forget to censure it. The Prophet's saying [Our 'Eid] is defended by the fact that display ing happiness in the Two 'Eids is from the rituals of the religion and thus they are not like other days."
Haafidh Ibn Hajr said "The benefits of this hadeeth are: The legality of being liberal towards the family during the days of 'Eid, by all means that provide ease for the soul and relaxation for the body from the toils of worship. However abstaining from such things is better. Also that displaying happiness in the days of 'Eid is from the symbols of the Religion."16
CHAPTER-FOUR : Adornment / Beautification for 'Eid
Ibn 'Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "'Umar (may' Allaah be pleased with him) bought a silk outer-garment that was being sold in the market. He came to the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) and said, 'Take this garment, to adorn (yourself) with on 'Eid and for meeting delegations with. Allah's Messenger replied, 'lndeed this is the garment of one who has no share of the Hereafter. 'Umar remained as long as Allah willed him to remain and then left. Then the Messenger of Allaah sent to him a silk garment. So 'Umar came with it to the Messenger of Allaah and said, 'O Messenger of Allaah! you said indeed this is the garment of one who has no share of the Hereafter but you sent this garment to me!' So the Messenger of Allaah said. 'Sell it and fulfill your needs with its profit '"17
Imaam as-Sindee said: "From the hadeeth it is known that beautification for the day of 'Eid was an established custom amongst them (the Companions) and the Prophet (SAW) did not disapprove of it. Consequently it is known that the custom remained."18
Haafidh Ibn Hajr said: "Ibn Abee Dunyah and al-Baihaqee reported, with an authentic chain of narration to Ibn 'Umar that he used to wear his best clothes for the 'Eids."19
He also said: "The inference of proof is from the Prophet's approving 'Umar on the basic principle of beautifying for the day of juma 'ah and his restricting his censure to wearing such a garment because it was made of silk." 20
Ibn Qudaamah said in al-Mughnee (2/228): "This shows that beautifying, in this circumstance was a well known fact to them. Maalik said: 'I heard the people of knowledge deeming the preferability of wearing perfume and of beautifying in the 'Eids."'
Ibn al-Qayyim said in Zaad-ul-Ma'aad (1/441): "He (SAW) would wear his best clothes when proceeding to the two 'Eids and the day of jum 'ah. On one occasion he wore a green burdah and on another a red Burdah;21,22 but not one that was solely red as some people may think. For if that was the case it would no longer be called a Burdah. Rather it had red thread like the thread of Yemanee Burdah."
1. Soorah al-Mulk 67:14.
2. Refer to what the renowned scholar Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawzeeyah (may Allaah have mercy upon him) has written in his book As-Salaat wa Hukmu Taarikuha P.109-127.
3. Hamz-insanity, Nafkh-arrogance, Nafth-enchanting poetry. taken from An-Nihaayah by Ibn Atheer (5/88. 90.273).
4. For additional information regarding the regulations of Jumm'ah and its distinctiveness refer to: Zaad-ul-Ma'aad (1/364-432). Majmoo'a ar-Rasaa'il-il-Muneerah (1/188-223), Adwa-ul-Bayaan by ash-Shanqeetee (8/268-310). Tafseer al-Qurtubee (1 8/96-1 20) and Ajwibat-un-Naafi'ah 'an Jum'ah wa Ahkaameeha by our Shaikh al Albaanee. Refer to it, for it is printed and widely available. Publishers note: Refer to Tile Friday Prayer Part I: The Fiqh of the Friday Prayer by Jamaal al-Din M. Zarabozo. Published by The Islamic Assembly of North America.
5. I have written with my brother, the teacher, Saleem al-Hilaalee, a book about the regulations of fasting in Ramadaan - its title is Sifaat-us-Sawm-an-Nahee distributed by Maktabat-ul-Islaameeyah - so refer to it. Publishers note: Available in English published by Al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution entitled Fasting in Ramadaan as observed by the Prophet (Peace he upon him).
6. Refer to the book 'Ayaad al-Islaam by Shaikh Sulaiman 'Alee Ja'baree (P.3-4) printed by al-Manar printers in the year 1350 A.H.
7. I am not alone in this field, for indeed many of the previous people of knowledge have written books and treatise about 'Eid-ul-Fitr and 'Adhaa, or just about one of them. I have come across the names of a few of these books and I shall mention them and their sources for the reader, so as to make it easy. From them: al- 'Eidciin by Ibn Abee Dunyah who died in the year 281 A.H, Risaalataaui fil Masaa'il Muta'alliq bil- 'Eid by Muhammad bin Jafar Kataane who died in the year 1345 A.H. As in Risalatul Mustatraafah. However I don 't know any of these books to be in print except the book 'Avaad al- lslaam as has preceded in the previous footnote, and the treatise Salaat-ul-'Eidain fil Mussallaa hiyah Sunnah by our teacher al-Albaanee and printed in Damascus. *Translator's note: A simple hand drum, which is allowed for use by women and children on specific occasions mentioned in the authentic Sunnah.
8. Lisanul- 'Arab (3/319).
9. That is: Happiness and bounties. Refer to Haashiyah lbn Aabideen (2/165). Know! My Muslim brother may Allaah grant you and I success towards His obedience, that the 'Eids which Allaah has legislated for His servants are well known and they are the subject of this treatise which is in front of you. As for in these times. it is nearly impossible to count the 'Eids taking place in the Muslim countries. let alone the other countries. Thus you see 'Eids taking place for shrines. graves mausoleums, people, countries and other things. All of which Allaah has not permitted. It is even found in some statistical reports that the Muslims of India have 144 Eids in a year. Refer to 'Ayaad-ul-Islaain (p.8).
10. They are the day of Niarooz (New Years day) and the day of Mahrajaan (Final day of the year). Refer to 'Awn ai-Ma 'bood (3/45) by Abee Tayyib al- 'Adheem 'Aabaadee (3/485).
11. Saheeh. Reported by Ahmad (3/103.178.235). Aboo Daawood (1134). an Nasaa'ee (3/179) and al-Baghawee (1098).
12. Fath-ur-Rabaanee (6/119).
13. In a narration "and they were not trained singers." Refer to Sharh Saheeh Muslim by an-Nawawee (6/182)
14. Both narrations are from al-Bukhaaree (949,952.987.2907.3530.3931) and reported by Muslim (892), Ahmad (6/134) and Ibn Maajah (1898).
15. Refer to Nihaayah (1/139) by Ibn Atheer al-Jazaree.
16. Fath-ul-Baaree (2/443). I have written a treatise concerning the ruling on playing the daff, which was distributed by the Kuwaiti magazine al-Mujtamah dated 15 Ramadaan 1402 AH. and if Allaah gives me the time perhaps I will expand upon it and distribute it on its own - by the permission of Allaah. Also refer to footnote number 140.
17. Reported by al-Bukhaaree (886. 947, 2104. 2619. 3054, 5841. 5981.6081). Muslim (2068), Aboo Daawood (1076). an-Nasaa'ee (3/181) and (8/196-197) and Ahmad (2/20.39,49).
18. Haashiyat-us-Sindee upon an-Nasaa'ee (3/181).
19. Fath-ul-Baaree (2/439).
20. Fath-ul-Baaree (2/439).
21. Burdah is a knitted garment.
22. Refer to Silsilatil-Ahadeeth as-Saheehah 1279.
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